1. Livestock Production: Interventions on risks, vulnerability and challenges of climate change, Eastern Cape Province, RSA
Muchenje V., Tada O., Nantapo C.W. T., Chulayo A and Gobane Z
Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P Bag X1314, Alice, 5700
Livestock production in the southern Africa region has been on the increase since 2008. An estimated population of 61.8 million cattle is found in this region of which 75% are in the communal areas (SADC, 2011). These communal areas are characterized by a cock-tail of indigenous breeds, non-descript genotypes, cross breeds and some exotic breeds. Many schools of thoughts have justified that improving the productivity of subsistence, smallholder and emerging farmers operating at non-commercial level has the potential to alleviate poverty in agriculturally-based economies (Hazell et al., 2007). With much evidence on the negative effects of climate change, it is of value to take action on the risks, vulnerability and challenges associated with this silent reality. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is well-known for livestock production in the country housing over a third of country’s livestock species (cattle, sheep and goats). Researchers at leading institutions of higher learning in the country and province, in particular, have been active for the past decades in finding non-conventional methods of enhancing smallholder livestock productivity. The initiatives suit a low-input low-output sustainable production system aimed at preserving the environment, conservation of indigenous animal genetic resources, awareness campaigns and equitable distribution of communal resources. The interventions included, and not limited to, 1) the use of indigenous livestock breeds for the provision of healthy products to consumers, 2) use of ethno-veterinary medicines in livestock and poultry, 3) use of indigenous plant resources in livestock diets, 4) studies of tick and disease resistance, and 5) consumer perceptions on livestock products quality. Herein is a presentation of research findings from the reputable scientists addressing the interventions highlighted above within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The peer-reviewed and abridged papers highlight the aim, study sites, methodology, main findings, and recommendations. The presentations follow the five sections listed below.
Section A: The use of indigenous livestock breeds for the provision of healthy products to consumers
Section B: The use of ethno-veterinary medicines and Indigenous Knowledge systems (IKS) in livestock and poultry production
Section C: The use of indigenous plant resources in livestock diets
Section D: Studies of tick and disease resistance
Section E: Studies of consumer perceptions on livestock products quality
Section F: Studies on marketing potential of livestock and other alternatives
Click here to view the Eastern Cape Province map
|NAME OF PROJECT||LOCATION/DISTRICT||NO. CATTLE DISTRIBUTED||NO. BENEFICIARIES||DISTRIBUTION DATE||RETURN DATE|
|Bulls||Cows/Heifers||Calves||Month & Year||Month & Year|
|Iliso Farmers Trust||2||10||2||10||07/2008||07/2013|
|Neu Bethesda Farmers Assoc||2||10||10||03/2010||03/2015|
|New Bethesda Red Meat||2||10||8||03/2010||03/2015|
|SSS MP Farm||2||10||1||18||07/2008||07/2013|
2. Analysis of cattle marketing channels used by small scale farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
L Musemwa, C Chagwiza, W Sikuka, G Fraser, M Chimonyo and N Mzileni
The study identified the cattle marketing strategies used by small-scale farmers in Kamastone village, Eastern Cape Province. Factors influencing the smallholder farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels were investigated. Based on the findings, the study suggested strategies to improve the marketing of cattle by the small scale farmers. The development of an efficient and sustainable livestock marketing system for the small-scale farmers was identified as one of the main strategy that would improve small scale farmers' access to formal markets. An improved livestock marketing system is likely to increase participation of small scale farmers in commercial agriculture that would mean higher income for them.
Keywords: access to markets, communal areas, farmer perception, formal marketing, sustainable marketing channels
Full Length Research Paper: Livestock Research for Rural Development 19 (9) 2007.
Availlable online at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/9/muse19131.htm
3. Low cattle market off-take rates in communal production systems of South Africa: Causes and mitigation strategies
L. Musemwa, A. Mushunje, M. Chimonyo, C. Mapiye
Market off-take rate is low in the communal cattle production system of Africa, with off-take rates of between 5 and 10%, compared to 25% in the commercial sector. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered between June and July 2007 to 183 smallholder farmers to determine factors that influence decision to sell cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa in three randomly selected municipalities. The average off-take rate in the sampled municipalities was 12%, which was much lower than that of the commercial sector (25%). Education, market distance, body condition, and herd size were significantly associated with municipality (p<0.05). Chris Hani had the highest number of the interviewees having reached at least primary education. Farmers in Amatole municipality sold their cattle in markets that were far away. The body condition of cattle in Chris Hani was the best. Lack of information access reduced cattle sales. Presence of markets that farmers like in or near their communities facilitated cattle sales. Smallholder farmers sold more cattle as transport became more available. The probability of smallholder farmers selling their cattle decreased as the body condition of cattle increases. As the household head changed from being male to being female, the probability of selling cattle increased. It is, therefore, evident that an integrated approach is likely to underpin an efficient livestock marketing system. This requires a joint effort by the government, municipalities, smallholder farmers, producer organizations, and private sector role players. Group marketing, decentralization of cattle information centers, and the involvement of communal farmers’ in the dissemination of information plays a critical role in improving the decision to sell cattle amongst the smallholder farmers.
Keywords: Auctions; Marketing; Nguni cattle; rural livelihoods; smallholder farmers.
Full Length Research Paper: Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa Vol 12, No.5, 2010
Full Length Research Paper: African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 3 (4), pp. 239-245, April, 2008