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Land Reform

1.  Factors affecting yields of field crops and land utilisation amongst land reform beneficiaries of Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe.

L. Musemwa and A. Mushunje

 

The objectives of the study were to determine the level that resettled farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe utilise their land in the production of field crops as well as to determine their mean yields per hectare. Factors that affect yield and land utilisation were also determined. Data was collected from 245 households using a questionnaire as the main instrument. The majority of the households in the resettled areas, A1 (91%), A2 (87%) and the old resettlement areas (70%) were male-headed and had at least primary education. A2 farms have the lowest mean yield per hectare of US$714.80 which significantly differed from A1 (US$854.60) and the old resettled farms (US$846.55) which had higher but similar mean yield per hectare. The mean land utilisation rate varied significantly (p<0.05) with the land reform model with A2 having highest land utilisation rate of 67%. The A1 and old resettlement households had land utilisation rates of 53 and 46% respectively. Average total revenue varied significantly with the model of land reform. Sex, marital status, age of the household head, education and household size significantly affected land utilisation (P<0.05).

Keywords: Land reform, land utilisation, old resettlements, revenue, yield.

Full Length Research Paper: Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics Vol. 4(4), pp. 109-118, 26 February, 2012

Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JDAE

2. Land reform as a strategy of breaking the circles of poverty in former colonized states of developing countries: A review

L. Musemwa and A. Mushunje

 

The main long standing objectives of the land reform programme have being to address the imbalances in land access. At the same time, extending and improving the base for productive agriculture in the smallholder farming sector, including bringing idle or under-utilized land into full production. This constitutes the key dimensions of land reform programme. Uncertainties regarding the distributed land have been reported. Cost-benefit analyses of the whole programme are made in terms of levels of output, foreign exchange earnings, land productivity, agricultural employment and the loss of agricultural expertise (white farmers). The main objective of this paper was to review relevant literature on the contribution of land reform towards poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper will also enable countries which are yet to implement land reform to either adopt the land reform strategy or utilise other poverty reduction initiatives aimed at resolving growth and development of the landless and the rural poor. The advocates of land reform claimed that if the problem of land ownership skewed towards race remains, racial conflicts may occur which are more costly and harmful to the citizens. With rapid population growth, the opponents of land reform claim that there is ‘not enough land’ to allow all those that are involved in farming to have their own land. Politically, it is not going to be easy to redress the present unacceptable land ownership inequalities without at the same time, seriously impairing the productive capacity of agriculture and without incurring costs which are at times unacceptable to society as a whole. Land redistribution alone will not bring any lasting benefits to agriculture but it should be accompanied by increases in farm and labour productivity.

Keywords: Poverty, employment, developing countries, inequalities, expertise, productivity.

Full Length Research Paper:  African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 7(31), pp. 4344-4351,14 August, 2012

Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR

3. Efficiency of resettled farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe in crop production: A DEA approach

L. Musemwa, A. Mushunje, V. Muchenje, F. Aghdasi and L. Zhou

The main aim of the paper is to determine the technical, allocative and economic efficiency of the resettled farmers in Zimbabwe in the production of field crops. Data were collected from 245 land reform beneficiaries using a structured questionnaire during the 2010/2011 agricultural production season. To empirically calculate efficiency, Data Envelop Analysis (DEA) was adopted mainly because of its capability of handling multiple inputs and outputs. Results obtained from DEA showed that commercial land reform beneficiaries (A2 farmers) had a higher average technical efficiency score of 0.839 than subsistence (small land size) land reform beneficiaries (A1 and the old resettled farmers) who had average technical efficiency scores of 61.7 and 65.9%, respectively. Small land holders were also on average less cost-efficient than large land holders (A2). The decomposition of cost-efficiency into technical and allocative efficiency suggests that cost inefficiency for A2 farmers was mostly due to the use of ‘wrong’ inputs at the prevailing input prices, rather than waste of inputs. Small land holders’ cost inefficiency was mostly due to both the use of ‘wrong’ inputs at the prevailing input prices and waste of inputs. Efficiency in field crop production in Zimbabwe could be improved through improving the ability of the resettled farmers to choose optimum input levels for given factor prices and saving inputs through correct usage.

 

Keywords: Allocative efficiency, cost efficiency, data envelop analysis (DEA), land reform, technical efficiency.

 

Full Length Research Paper:  African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 8(22), pp. 2722-2729, 13 June, 2013

Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/abstracts/abstracts/Abstracts%202013/13Jun/Musemwa%20et%20al.htm

4. Agrarian and life style change in Zimbabwe: From colonization to the formation of government of national unity

L. Musemwa and A. Mushunje

In a predominantly agricultural country like Zimbabwe, the problem of land reform has naturally been one of the most important subjects of political campaigning and economic turmoil. Zimbabwe’s land distribution was racially highly skewed towards whites before land reform and the status quo was not politically, socially or economically sustainable. This has been the state of affairs since the British reform of 1890. It is this inequitable distribution of land that prompted the black people to take up arms and fight for independence. At independence the government of Zimbabwe decided to embark on the land reform programme. It is therefore of paramount importance not to overlook the events of the then Rhodesia at colonization through to the independent Zimbabwe at the Fast Track Land Reform stage. This article therefore provides the untold story of Zimbabwean agrarian change from colonial times to the present. It clearly explains how land rights of both the whites and the black Zimbabweans were damaged by the government of Rhodesia and later by the government of Zimbabwe.

 

Keywords: Colonization, government of national unity, land reform, land invasion, racial discrimination.

Full Length Research Paper:  African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 6(21), pp. 4824- 4832, 5 October, 2011

Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR

 

The land reform programme (LRP) as a poverty alleviation and national reconciliation tool: The South African story. 2012. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 1970-1975,

Tshuma, Mengezi Chancellor

Abstract

With the first democratic elections, there was a great need to rebuild the South African (SA) economy. Some of the major pressing issues that needed priority included addressing the high poverty and unemployment levels in the country. This has resulted in debates from development economists on which approach to adopt to quickly get the rural poor out of the vicious circle of poverty. One of the most supported approaches is to develop the rural population first seeing as it is the one most affected by poverty. Since the majority of the population is located in the rural areas, it is of paramount importance that attention is given to them through supporting their (smallholder) agricultural sector. This paper seeks to highlight and evaluate the Land Reform Programme (LRP) as one of many approaches used to promote the smallholder agricultural sector. The idea is to determine the success or failure rate of this intervention and perhaps come up with some possible policy recommendations that can make it more effective.

Quitrent Tenure and the Village System in the Former Ciskei Region of the Eastern Cape: Implications for Contemporary Land Reform of a Century of Social Change.2014. Journal of Southern African Studies, 40:4, 727-744

Luvuyo Wotshelaa

Abstract

Both quitrent tenure and the village model of settlement in the former Ciskei region of the Eastern Cape have been through a sequence of changes since their introduction and gradual entrenchment following the conquest of local African chiefdoms during the nineteenth century. Initially planned around mission stations west of the Kei River, in what became the Ciskei, quitrent was extended to some districts in the Transkei as well. Under the Glen Grey Act (1894), nuclear families were provided with indivisible individual plots, heritable only by the oldest male son. Over time, complex local politics and social dynamics evolved around this landholding system. This article examines developments over the years, especially following the 1936 Native Land and Trust Act, which brought the reserve areas of the Cape Province in line with those in other provinces. By the mid twentieth century most quitrent villages of the Ciskei were re-planned under countrywide ‘betterment’ planning, mainly because they were deemed to be heavily congested, ecologically vulnerable and difficult to administer. Their rehabilitation and re-planning created new residential plots, enabling the National Party government to foster a supposedly more egalitarian system by granting rights to hitherto landless families. The processes paralleled intense villagisation and the inception of ‘tribal authorities’ in the Ciskei, as it was brought under the homeland system in the apartheid years. How do we understand these wide-ranging historical processes that have shaped relationships to land in these villages? How have potential solutions to unequal land rights been articulated and negotiated at local level? What challenges have confronted post-1994 land reform policy in resolving uneven access to land within these settlements? These are the questions that this article explores.

Livestock and the rangeland commons in South Africa's land and agrarian reform. African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 30:1-2, 11-15

Ruth Hall and  Ben Cousins

Abstract

Land and agrarian reform has the potential to expand South Africa’s rangeland commons and enhance their contribution to the livelihoods of the rural poor, yet to a large extent this has been an opportunity missed. Shifting policy agendas have prioritised private land rights and commercial land uses, seeking to dismantle the racial divide between the white commercial farming areas and the ex-Bantustans by allocating former white farms to black farmers. These agendas and planning models reflect class and gender bias and a poor understanding of common property. If reform policies are to contribute to the reduction of high levels of rural poverty and inequality, then greater recognition of the potential role of livestock production on the commons must inform policy and planning.

Land reform as a strategy of breaking the circles of poverty in former colonized states of developing countries: African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 4344-4351,

L. Musemwa and A. Mushunje

Abstract

The main long standing objectives of the land reform programme have being to address the imbalances in land access. At the same time, extending and improving the base for productive agriculture in the smallholder farming sector, including bringing idle or under-utilized land into full production. This constitutes the key dimensions of land reform programme. Uncertainties regarding the distributed land have been reported. Cost-benefit analyses of the whole programme are made in terms of levels of output, foreign exchange earnings, land productivity, agricultural employment and the loss of agricultural expertise (white farmers). The main objective of this paper was to review relevant literature on the contribution of land reform towards poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper will also enable countries which are yet to implement land reform to either adopt the land reform strategy or utilise other poverty reduction initiatives aimed at resolving growth and development of the landless and the rural poor. The advocates of land reform claimed that if the problem of land ownership skewed towards race remains, racial conflicts may occur which are more costly and harmful to the citizens. With rapid population growth, the opponents of land reform claim that there is ‘not enough land’ to allow all those that are involved in farming to have their own land. Politically, it is not going to be easy to redress the present unacceptable land ownership inequalities without at the same time, seriously impairing the productive capacity of agriculture and without incurring costs which are at times unacceptable to society as a whole. Land redistribution alone will not bring any lasting benefits to agriculture but it should be accompanied by increases in farm and labour productivity.

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