Front Page Slideshow

Livestock Production

1. Livestock Production: Interventions on risks, vulnerability and challenges of climate change, Eastern Cape Province, RSA

Muchenje V., Tada O., Nantapo C.W. T., Chulayo A and Gobane Z
Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P Bag X1314, Alice, 5700

Executive summary

Livestock production in the southern Africa region has been on the increase since 2008. An estimated population of 61.8 million cattle is found in this region of which 75% are in the communal areas (SADC, 2011). These communal areas are characterized by a cock-tail of indigenous breeds, non-descript genotypes, cross breeds and some exotic breeds. Many schools of thoughts have justified that improving the productivity of subsistence, smallholder and emerging farmers operating at non-commercial level has the potential to alleviate poverty in agriculturally-based economies (Hazell et al., 2007). With much evidence on the negative effects of climate change, it is of value to take action on the risks, vulnerability and challenges associated with this silent reality. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is well-known for livestock production in the country housing over a third of country’s livestock species (cattle, sheep and goats). Researchers at leading institutions of higher learning in the country and province, in particular, have been active for the past decades in finding non-conventional methods of enhancing smallholder livestock productivity. The initiatives suit a low-input low-output sustainable production system aimed at preserving the environment, conservation of indigenous animal genetic resources, awareness campaigns and equitable distribution of communal resources. The interventions included, and not limited to, 1) the use of indigenous livestock breeds for the provision of healthy products to consumers, 2) use of ethno-veterinary medicines in livestock and poultry, 3) use of indigenous plant resources in livestock diets, 4) studies of tick and disease resistance, and 5) consumer perceptions on livestock products quality. Herein is a presentation of research findings from the reputable scientists addressing the interventions highlighted above within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The peer-reviewed and abridged papers highlight the aim, study sites, methodology, main findings, and recommendations. The presentations follow the five sections listed below.

Click here to view the Eastern Cape Province map

NAME OF PROJECT LOCATION/DISTRICT NO. CATTLE DISTRIBUTED NO. BENEFICIARIES DISTRIBUTION DATE RETURN DATE
    Bulls Cows/Heifers Calves   Month & Year Month & Year
  AMATHOLE  
Bell   2 10   10 06/2006 06/2011
Bongolethu   4     25 07/2008 07/2013
Dikidikana   2 10   10 07/2006 07/2011
Dyam-Dyam   2 10   20 03/2006 03/2011
Gxwederha   2 10   10 02/2005 02/2010
Ikamva Lethu   2 10   8 07/2008 07/2013
Jojozi   2 10   25 01/2005 01/2010
July   2 10   8 03/2012 03/2017
Khwezana   2 10   20 01/2005 01/2010
Lower Gqumashe   2 10   20 03/2005 03/2010
Machibi   2 10 3 15 03/2012 03/2017
Mankazana   2 10   8 03/2005 03/2010
Masele   2 10   15 03/2006 03/2011
Masiphathisane CPA   2 10   15 04/2005 04/2010
Masingatha   2 10   15 06/2012 06/2017
Mimosa Park   2 10 3 3 05/2011 05/2016
Mount Pleasant   2 10   15 07/2008 07/2013
Msobomvu   2 10   15 04/2005 04/2010
Ncera   2 10   25 03/2005 03/2010
Ngqele   2 10   30 04/2005 04/2010
Nomgwadla   2 10   20 05/2010 05/2015
Ntselamanzi   2 10   15 01/2005 01/2010
Phandulwazi   2 10   1 03/2004 03/2009
Platform CPA   2 10   15 03/2006 03/2011
Saki   2 10   10 06/2012 06/2017
Tanga   2 10   15 06/2008 06/2013
Tyutyuza   2 10   15 02/2005 02/2010
Upper Gqumashe   2 10   10 02/2005 02/2010
Winterberg   2 10   1 06/2004 06/2009
Zazulwana   2 10 5 20 02/2012 02/2017
  ALFRED NDZO  
Mahobe   2 10   25 04/2005 04/2010
Mampondomise   2 10   15 03/2005 03/2010
Mfundisweni   2 10   10 02/2004 02/2009
Saphukanduku   2 10   10 04/2006 04/2011
  CACADU  
Castle Farm   2 10 1 15 05/2010 05/2015
Farmer Field   2 10   8 03/2008 03/2013
Iliso Farmers Trust   2 10 2 10 07/2008 07/2013
MJF Fatman   1 11 2 4 07/2008 07/2013
Neu Bethesda Farmers Assoc   2 10   10 03/2010 03/2015
New Bethesda Red Meat   2 10   8 03/2010 03/2015
Pearston   2 10   10 06/2007 06/2012
  CHRIS HANI  
Bolotwa   2 10   8 02/2006 02/2011
Elliot   2 10   15 07/2008 07/2013
Hex River   2 10   15 01/2006 01/2011
Hidden park   2 10   8 07/2008 07/2013
Kamastone   2 10   8 02/2005 02/2010
Lesseyton   2 10   15 03/2006 03/2011
Luckily Farm   2 10   5 03/2006 03/2011
Manzimahle   2 10   15 08/2008 08/2013
Nompumelelo   2 10   6 04/2005 04/2010
Upper  Hazelden   2 10   12 03/2006 03/2011
Upper Mnxe   2 10   20 07/2005 07/2010
Zulukama   2 10   10 04/2005 04/2010
  JOE GQABI  
Blikana   2 10   15 03/2006 03/2011
Border Glen   2 10   8 02/2006 02/2011
Goedehoop   2 10 2 6 03/2010 03/2015
Killidaire   2 10   5 02/2006 02/2011
Ouplass   2 10   12 01/2006 01/2011
Phambili Makhesa   2 10 2 6 03/2010 03/2015
Pilgrim's Rest   2 10 2 15 03/2010 03/2015
SSS MP Farm   2 10 1 18 07/2008 07/2013
Swartfontein   2 10 2 5 10/2010 10/2015
Temengo   2 10 1 12 03/2010 03/2015
Thubela Farm   2 10   15 10/2010 10/2015
Tweekopies   2 10   4 06/2006 06/2011
Umnga Flats    2 10 6 12 04/2008 04/2013
Vaalbnak   2 10 2 5 03/2010 03/2015
Vezamafa CPA   2 10   7 10/2010 10/2015
Wingelspruit   2 10   12 02/2006 02/2011
  OR TAMBO  
Balasi   2 10 1 30 09/2010 09/2015
Indwe   2 10   10 04/2005 04/2010
Mthimde   2 10   10 03/2006 03/2011
               

2. Analysis of cattle marketing channels used by small scale farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

L Musemwa, C Chagwiza, W Sikuka, G Fraser, M Chimonyo and N Mzileni

The study identified the cattle marketing strategies used by small-scale farmers in Kamastone village, Eastern Cape Province. Factors influencing the smallholder farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels were investigated. Based on the findings, the study suggested strategies to improve the marketing of cattle by the small scale farmers. The development of an efficient and sustainable livestock marketing system for the small-scale farmers was identified as one of the main strategy that would improve small scale farmers' access to formal markets. An improved livestock marketing system is likely to increase participation of small scale farmers in commercial agriculture that would mean higher income for them.

Keywords: access to markets, communal areas, farmer perception, formal marketing, sustainable marketing channels

Full Length Research Paper:  Livestock Research for Rural Development 19 (9) 2007.

Availlable online at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/9/muse19131.htm

3. Low cattle market off-take rates in communal production systems of South Africa: Causes and mitigation strategies

L. Musemwa, A. Mushunje, M. Chimonyo, C. Mapiye

Market off-take rate is low in the communal cattle production system of Africa, with off-take rates of between 5 and 10%, compared to 25% in the commercial sector. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered between June and July 2007 to 183 smallholder farmers to determine factors that influence decision to sell cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa in three randomly selected municipalities. The average off-take rate in the sampled municipalities was 12%, which was much lower than that of the commercial sector (25%). Education, market distance, body condition, and herd size were significantly associated with municipality (p<0.05). Chris Hani had the highest number of the interviewees having reached at least primary education. Farmers in Amatole municipality sold their cattle in markets that were far away. The body condition of cattle in Chris Hani was the best. Lack of information access reduced cattle sales. Presence of markets that farmers like in or near their communities facilitated cattle sales. Smallholder farmers sold more cattle as transport became more available. The probability of smallholder farmers selling their cattle decreased as the body condition of cattle increases. As the household head changed from being male to being female, the probability of selling cattle increased. It is, therefore, evident that an integrated approach is likely to underpin an efficient livestock marketing system. This requires a joint effort by the government, municipalities, smallholder farmers, producer organizations, and private sector role players. Group marketing, decentralization of cattle information centers, and the involvement of communal farmers’ in the dissemination of information plays a critical role in improving the decision to sell cattle amongst the smallholder farmers.

Keywords: Auctions; Marketing; Nguni cattle; rural livelihoods; smallholder farmers.

Full Length Research Paper:  Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa Vol 12, No.5, 2010

Available online at http://www.jsdafrica.com/Jsda/V12No5_Fall2010_A/PDF/
Low%20Cattle%20Market%20OffTake%20Rates%20in%20Communal
%20Production%20(Musemwa,%20Mushnje,%20Chimonyo,%20Mapiye).pdf

4. Nguni cattle marketing constraints and opportunities in the communal areas of South Africa: Review

L. Musemwa, A. Mushunje, M. Chimonyo, G. Fraser, C. Mapiye and V. Muchenje

Cattle production is the most important livestock sub-sector in South Africa. It contributes about 25 - 30% to the total agricultural output per annum. However, cattle productivity is declining due to diseases and parasites prevalence, lack of feed resources, and poor breeding and marketing management. To increase sustainability and contribution of cattle in eradicating hunger and poverty in communal areas, there is need to make use of locally adapted breeds. In South Africa’s communal cattle enterprise, the Nguni breed is becoming a very important socio-economic drive for the resource-poor farmers. Nguni cattle development projects have been initiated in South Africa to improve livelihood of communal farmers. However, these projects are mainly concentrating on solving production constraints and ignoring marketing factors. This paper reviews the neglected marketing constraints and opportunities faced by beneficiaries of the Nguni cattle development program.

Key words: Auction, beef, diseases, transactional costs, sustainability.

Full Length Research Paper:  African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 3 (4), pp. 239-245, April, 2008

Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2008/April/Musemwa%20et%20al.htm

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