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Food Security

1.An assessment of factors influencing the demand for Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs) of maize as an adaptation strategy to Climate change by smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Authors: M. Sibanda a, A. Mushunje a and C.S. Mutengwa b
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, RSA.
Email:
sibandamelusi@yahoo.co.uk , Cell: + (27) 726473073
b
Department of Agronomy, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, RSA

ABSTRACT

Nowadays there is wide scientific evidence that concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are increasing due to human activities, causing global climate change. Climate change has been shown to exert significant pressure on agricultural production in Africa. Adaptation strategies to cope with climate variability and change have become the key themes in current global climate discussions and policy initiatives; however such options are limited to poor-resource smallholder farmers. Maize is one of the most important crops grown by smallholder farmers in Amatole and O.R. Tambo Districts of the Eastern Cape. Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs) of maize have been shown by studies to be relatively drought tolerant as compared to hybrids and can be a valuable step if adopted as a climate change strategy by the smallholder farmers. This study assessed the factors that influence the demand for maize OPVs of in the Eastern Cape as an adaptation strategy to Climate change by smallholder farmers. One hundred and thirty seven sample households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The demand model that employed a multiple regression model was used and data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) computer software. Results showed that extension contact, access to credit, availability of household income and proportion of land area under cultivation, positively influenced the demand for the improved maize OPVs whereas the unavailability of the improved maize OPV seeds on the local shops, proportion of land area under hybrids and landraces and perceptions on seed color negatively influenced the demand for the improved maize OPVs.

Keywords: Climate Change, Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs), Demand, Smallholder farmers.

2.  Factors affecting household access to enough food in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

L. Musemwa, L. Zhou, S. Ndhleve and F. Aghdasi

South Africa is experiencing rapid increase in food prices while household income is increasing at a slower rate. This antagonistic state has positioned ordinary South Africans, at present struggling to meet their basic household requirements, more vulnerable to food security. The objectives of the study were to determine factors that affect household access to enough food in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and to determine the role played by agriculture and fisheries in enhancing household access to enough food. Data were collected from 159 households using a questionnaire as the main instrument. Most households interviewed were male headed (50.3%). Unemployment level was high with 73.6% of the interviewed household heads being unemployed. On average, households had five members and range from 1 to 13. The average age of household heads was 59 years. Most of the household heads owned home gardens and had access to arable land though the majority did not cultivate their land (83%). Poultry and livestock production were practiced by 61.6 and 52.8% of the households, respectively. Government grants were the main source of income for the majority of households. The mean household income for all households was ZAR2 987. From the 159 respondents only 29 had access to enough food. Access to enough food was affected by gender of head of household, household size, education level of household head, agricultural training, poultry production and monthly total income. Most of the interviewed households depend mostly on food purchases rather than own production. This therefore mean that the people in the area to do not explore agriculture up to its potential.

Keywords: Food security, garden, household, income, land access, livestock.

Full Length Research Paper: Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics Vol. 5(3), pp. 84-91, March 2013

Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/jdae/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2013/Mar/Musemwa%20et%20al.htm

 

3. How severe hunger is amongst rural households of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

S. Ndhleve, L. Musemwa, L. Zhou

The paper describes household perceptions of food accessibility status, average number of meals a household had in one day and the average number of meals shortages in one month in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A random sampling technique was used to interview 159 households. Analysis of data utilized simple descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis to describe household food security. About 80% of the interviewed households perceived themselves as food insecure and the rest as food secure. The respondents eat 3.04±0.06 meals per day and experience an average of 2±0.32 meal shortages per month. Most household perceive lack of capital as the main cause of food insecurity. Improving household income through promotion of income generating projects and increasing employment opportunities complemented with wage increment could help household in meeting their food requirements. Government should however continue fostering its agenda of improving agriculture in rural communities though it does not contribute much to household food security directly.

Keywords: Agriculture, food security, malnutrition, poverty, food shortages

Full Length Research Paper:  Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development Vol.4, No.3, 2013

Available online at

http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEDS/article/view/4345/4413

 

4. Household food security in a coastal rural community of South Africa: Status, causes and coping strategies.

S. Ndhleve, L. Musemwa and L. Zhou

Food insecurity is a challenge in rural South Africa. This paper employed descriptive statistics, household food accessibility index, and ordinal regression analysis on a sample of 159 randomly selected households to model the risk of inadequate access to food among households in a coastal rural community of Hamburg, in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data was collected using household questionnaire survey. Inadequate access to food is elusive across all the villages in Hamburg as an insignificant proportion of the respondents were reported to have adequate access to food. This study showed that 9% of the households experience severe inadequate access to food, while 78% have moderate access to food and 13% have access to adequate food. Various differences were noticed between the socio-economic statuses of the three groups. Following risk modeling criteria, inter-alia, purchasing food from the market, accessing food from the environment, income level, receiving social grants, having a professional job, owning a business and practicing farmers emerged as the major predictors of adequate access to food. The results reinforce the importance of social grants, promotion of small businesses, farming and continued support of rural education, and recommend them as important in improving food access in Hamburg community.

Keywords: Agriculture, adequate access to food, food insecurity, global food security index, risk modelling, risk of inadequate access to food.

Full Length Research Paper:  Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development Vol. 4(5), pp. 68 –74, November 2012

Available online at

http://www.academicjournals.org/JABSD

The Role of Home Gardens in Household Food Security in Eastern Cape: A Case Study of Three Villages in Nkonkobe Municipality Research Article. 2013. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(10): 67-76.

Ogundiran O.A.

Abstract

The South African government has committed to halving poverty between 2004 and 2014 and achieving household food security is their major objective. Access to food and water is perhaps unlike other areas of delivery, since they are essential to well-being and human development. The Eastern Cape Province is the second largest provinces in South Africa, but yet second poorest province. This study looks at the role of home gardens in enhancing food security around Nkonkobe Municipality. The specific objectives were to; investigate what people produce in their gardens; assess how much produce they obtain from their gardens; investigate household source of food. This study was carried out to understand the role of home gardens in addressing household food security in rural areas of Nkonkobes Municipality. A study was carried out among rural households in rural areas of Nkonkobes Municipality, to determine the role of home gardening on household food security. Simple random sampling was used to obtain a study population of 60 households, to whom an interview schedule and an observation checklist was administered. These were achieved through personal interviews in three area 20 respondents from each village. Primary data were obtained through structured questionnaire in those areas and data obtained were analyzed quantitatively. Results obtained showed that home gardening plays a significant role in food security of rural households. Households, therefore, should be empowered and encouraged to improve their practice of home gardening to realize food security. Findings of this study will be useful to governmental and non-governmental bodies involved in promoting food security in the rural households.

Factors affecting household access to enough food in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. 2013. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 5(3): 84-91

Musemwa L., Zhou L., Ndhleve S and Aghdasi F

Abstract

South Africa is experiencing rapid increase in food prices while household income is increasing at a slower rate. This antagonistic state has positioned ordinary South Africans, at present struggling to meet their basic household requirements, more vulnerable to food security. The objectives of the study were to determine factors that affect household access to enough food in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and to determine the role played by agriculture and fisheries in enhancing household access to enough food. Data were collected from 159 households using a questionnaire as the main instrument. Most households interviewed were male headed (50.3%). Unemployment level was high with 73.6% of the interviewed household heads being unemployed. On average, households had five members and range from 1 to 13. The average age of household heads was 59 years. Most of the household heads owned home gardens and had access to arable land though the majority did not cultivate their land (83%). Poultry and livestock production were practiced by 61.6 and 52.8% of the households, respectively. Government grants were the main source of income for the majority of households. The mean household income for all households was ZAR2 987. From the 159 respondents only 29 had access to enough food. Access to enough food was affected by gender of head of household, household size, education level of household head, agricultural training, poultry production and monthly total income. Most of the interviewed households depend mostly on food purchases rather than own production. This therefore mean that the people in the area to do not explore agriculture up to its potential.

The role of wild vegetables in household food security in South Africa. Food Research International. Volume 76, Part 4, October 2015, Pages 1001–1011

Bvenura C and Afolayan A.J.

Abstract

Wild vegetables are a common and important source of food and nutrition in the rural areas where they can be harvested from backyard gardens, animal houses or agricultural fields. These plant species which were initially primary sources of food in many societies have been marginalised in favour of exotic vegetables. Micronutrient deficiencies, especially in children, continue to be a global cause for concern and yet numerous reports have revealed the high nutritional value of wild vegetables. If they are incorporated into the diet, wild vegetables can alleviate some of the micronutrient deficiency concerns. In this paper, literature on ethnobotanical knowledge of wild vegetables in South Africa is reviewed with a view to reveal their potential role in household food security. The outcome of the literature search revealed only 103 plant species from a total of 33 families in five out of nine provinces. In South Africa the cultivation of these wild vegetables has so far been limited to only two provinces. These important plant foods are clearly underutilised although they potentially have a big role to play in food security. Wild vegetables need to be revitalised and brought back into the mainstream diet so that they can play their role in food security. More work needs to be done to document these important food plants in all the provinces of South Africa to create an updated inventory. If these species continue to be neglected and underappreciated, knowledge about them may soon be lost in time and never be recovered.

The Role of Home Gardens in Household Food Security in Eastern Cape: A Case Study of Three Villages in Nkonkobe Municipality.2014. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6: 129-136

Ogundiran, Oluwasola Adekunle; Monde, Nomakhaya; Agholor, Isaac; Odeyemi, and Akinwumi Sunday

Abstract

Household gardening activities remains an important avenue for food production for most urban and peri-urban populace. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between home gardening and household food security in the study area. The specific objectives were to determine the demographic characteristics of farmers in relation to income generated from home garden and examine the role of home garden in household food security. The findings reveals that the mean estimated income earned from vegetable production per year was 473.39 Rand (standard deviation=170.613, N=90), with the mean land size used for farming of 233.60 m2 (standard deviation=31.545, N=90). A correlation between estimated income generated by household per year in Rand from garden produce and land size was conducted to determine whether revenue from gardening could in fact be assessed by land size. Results demonstrated that land size and estimated income generated were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p < .001). In sum, home gardening remains an avenue for enhancing food security, health and social interrelation of households in the contemporary South African society.

Genotype × environment interactions and yield stability of stress-tolerant open-pollinated maize varieties in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. (2014) . South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 31, 61-68

Vimbayi GP Chimonyo, Charles S Mutengwa and Cornelius Chiduza

Abstract

Genotype × environment interactions are inherent in multilocational trials and complicate identification of superior genotypes. The aim of the study was to determine yield performance and stability of 13 maize genotypes in five locations of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. The genotypes assessed were: ZM305, ZM423, ZM501, ZM525, ZM621, ZM627 and Obatanpa from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre; BR993 and COMP4 from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; four local checks, AFRIC 1, Okavango, Nelson's Choice, and PAN 6479. Yield data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis. According to ANOVA, genotype × environment interaction was significant. PAN 6479 (5.21 t ha-1) and ZM525 (5.19 t ha-1) were the highest-yielding varieties, whereas Okavango (4.08 t ha-1) showed the lowest yield. Based on AMMI analysis, BR993 and Obatanpa were the least stable genotypes. PAN 6479 and ZM525 showed specific adaptations to high potential environments. Obatanpa was adapted to environments with low-yielding potential, since improvement of the environment did not improve its yield. ZM501 was the most stable genotype, and showed no significant yield difference to PAN 6479. ZM501 can therefore be assigned to several environments in the Eastern Cape.

The role of wild vegetable species in household food security in maize based subsistence cropping systems. 2013. Food Security,5: 227-233

S. Mavengahama, M. McLachlan, W. de Clercq

Abstract

Wild vegetables (WV) are an important source of food in the maize based subsistence farming sector of rural South Africa. Their main role is as relish as they are used as an accompaniment for staple cereal based diets. They are generally reported to be rich in micronutrients. Although they may be consumed in small quantities, they influence the intake of cereal staples, manage hunger and play a central role in household food security for the poorer rural groups. Mixing several WV species in one meal contributes to dietary diversity in terms of more vegetable types as well as in terms of choice of relish. For some very poor families WV are substitutes for some food crops. The seasonal occurrence of these vegetables leaves many families without a food source during the off-season. Wild vegetables increase agro-biodiversity at the household level. This agro-biodiversity helps in buffering against the accumulation and multiplication of pests and diseases and provides important cover for the soil. Further research on agronomic, social and economic dimensions is required to understand the roles of WV in subsistence farming systems in South Africa

Winter cover crops effects on soil strength, infiltration and water retention in a sandy loam Oakleaf soil in Eastern Cape, South Africa (2012). South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 29:121-126

HA Mupambwa and IIC Wakindiki

Abstract

There is substantial evidence that cover crops increase soil fertility and plant nutrition but the few studies concerning soil physical properties are conflicting. This study determined the effects of monocultures of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), oats (Avena sativa L.) and bicultures of oats and vetch and a weedy fallow on the strength and water conservation properties of a hardsetting Oakleaf soil. Oats monoculture lowered the soil strength by 48.5%, whilst vetch and lupin increased soil strength by 43% and 31%, respectively, relative to the control. Bicultures decreased soil strength as the proportion of oats increased. Oats monoculture increased cumulative water infiltration relative to the control. Bicultures increased the water final infiltration rate by 105–163% compared to the control. Plant available water increased by 24–28% compared to the weedy fallow under monocultures. However, no significant differences were observed on plant available water after two rotations with bicultures compared to the weedy fallow. We concluded that oats monoculture reduced the strength and improved water conservation properties of the hard setting soil but vetch and lupin monoculture worsened the deleterious effects of the hard setting phenomenon.

Assessment of tillage effects on soil quality of pastures in South Africa with indexing methods. 2015. Soil Research , 53: 274-285.

P. A. Swanepoel A B F, C. C. du Preez C, P. R. Botha B, H. A. Snyman D and J. Habig E

Abstract

Soil quality of pastures changes through time because of management practices. Excessive soil disturbance usually leads to the decline in soil quality, and this has resulted in concerns about kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum)–ryegrass (Lolium spp.) pasture systems in the southern Cape region of South Africa. This study aimed to understand the effects of tillage on soil quality. The soil management assessment framework (SMAF) and the locally developed soil quality index for pastures (SQIP) were used to assess five tillage systems and were evaluated at a scale inclusive of variation in topography, pedogenic characteristics and local anthropogenic influences. Along with assessment of overall soil quality, the quality of the physical, chemical and biological components of soil were considered individually. Soil physical quality was largely a function of inherent pedogenic characteristics but tillage affected physical quality adversely. Elevated levels of certain nutrients may be warning signs to soil chemical degradation; however, tillage practice did not affect soil chemical quality. Soil disturbance and the use of herbicides to establish annual pastures has lowered soil biological quality. The SQIP was a more suitable tool than SMAF for assessing soil quality of high-input, dairy-pasture systems. SQIP could facilitate adaptive management by land managers, environmentalists, extension officers and policy makers to assess soil quality and enhance understanding of processes affecting soil quality.

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